Diagnostic errors can have tremendous consequences because they can result in a fatal chain of wrong decisions. Experts assume that physicians’ desire to confirm a preliminary diagnosis while failing to seek contradictory evidence is an important reason for wrong diagnoses. This tendency is called ‘confirmation bias’. Method To study whether psychiatrists and medical students are prone to confirmation bias and whether confirmation bias leads to poor diagnostic accuracy in psychiatry, we presented an experimental decision task to 75 psychiatrists and 75 medical students.RESULTS:
A total of 13% of psychiatrists and 25% of students showed confirmation bias when searching for new information after having made a preliminary diagnosis. Participants conducting a confirmatory information search were significantly less likely to make the correct diagnosis compared to participants searching in a disconfirmatory or balanced way [multiple logistic regression: odds ratio (OR) 7.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.53-21.22, p<0.001; OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.23-8.56, p=0.02]. Psychiatrists conducting a confirmatory search made a wrong diagnosis in 70% of the cases compared to 27% or 47% for a disconfirmatory or balanced information search (students: 63, 26 and 27%). Participants choosing the wrong diagnosis also prescribed different treatment options compared with participants choosing the correct diagnosis.
Confirmatory information search harbors the risk of wrong diagnostic decisions. Psychiatrists should be aware of confirmation bias and instructed in techniques to reduce bias.
Source: Department of Psychiatry, Technische Universität München, Germany. Psychol Med. 2011 May 20:1-9 Mendel R, Traut-Mattausch E, Jonas E, Leucht S, Kane JM, Maino K, Kissling W, Hamann J.
!!!BEWARE OF THESE PSYCHOLOGISTS!!!
RESPONSIBLE FOR PROVIDING A FLAWED PSYCH EVALUATION TO THE HONORABLE JUDGE MARIA ESPINOSA DENNIS OF THE 11TH JUDICIAL CIRCUIT IN/FOR MIAMI-DADE COUNTY, FLORIDA
Dr. Julio & Laura Vigil
Kisses that mended everything as mother’s (and father’s) kisses do.
For precious seconds I manage to catch a glimpse of your smile from the depths of time, with eyes that laughed and danced in joy.
The pictures on my wall helping to bring the memory closer, protecting the precious times,
Keeping them safe from the force field of fear that robs us both of light, darkening our path together into that cold oblivion which swallows all things positive in your young heart.
The memory of you melts this cruel sadness and in an instant my heart warms.
For a second in time I am whole again, finding a secret place where we can meet.
Can you dare, too?
And in a second the dark path that has been so cleverly paved between us lurches with repeated menace to tear away even the smallest tendril of precious thought.
Yet still I dare to dream despite the enveloping darkness,
The distant sound of your laughter echoes around my thoughts and I dare not breathe,
Not wanting to lose this moment of dared closeness.
My tired heart is solid, cold from the wilderness years, and I miss your presence in my life with an unassailable ache that fills my world to overflowing.
My only contact is an occasional glimpse of photographs posted on walls in an internet world. Through this I have at least been able to watch you grow older as the years roll on. Rare snapshots into your world that show a girl becoming a young woman, reminding me of all that we have lost but reassuring me that you are there, alive and well.
For that luxury I am at least lucky and that brings comfort to a broken heart.
But now your eyes never smile.
Is it the ravages of teenage years or does your heart need more?
Questions that can only be unspoken, but tear into my heart as every part of me wants to protect my angel.
My daring is tiring as the all too familiar tears creep forward to wash away the moment.
I am a mother (a father) with arms around your glass prison, I can never leave your side, my instinct to love you is as unbreakable as the harsh walls that enclose you. Walls not of your own making.
Another person’s fear and pain built them cleverly around you to keep himself safe.
I peer through glass that is scarred and pitted with my attempts to reach you.
I see you there alone, damaged, growing older in a world without balance.
My life is broken, as is my heart and I cannot find a way to mend it when your eyes don’t smile. I am surrounded by love so my heart can still beat…
but without you it is a dull and hollow thud.
Stay safe my darling girl.
Dare to dream as I do.
Our precious moments will melt the walls that have been built.
Love will prevail and heal the deep wounds that have been wrought to our soul.
I will wait forever,
I will love you through the pain and I will never give up.
Rest your heart my dear daughter:
I will always be waiting.